The budget, along with a handful of companion bills, was sent to the governor nearly 10 hours before the midnight deadline on Friday. But Democrats did not take up any of the contentious bills needed to execute the budget because they refuse to make deeper cuts to the state’s welfare-to-work program and to other social services for the poor.

Mr. Brown, a Democrat, wants a welfare overhaul and a larger reserve to help the state bridge its projected $15.7 billion deficit.

California’s fiscal year begins July 1. Without a budget in place, the state would not be able to make certain payments to school districts and vendors or pay salaries of elected officials and their staff members. Democratic leaders said they hoped to work out a deal with Mr. Brown in the next week.

The Democratic-led State Senate passed the main budget bill on a 23-to-16 vote along party lines. The bill was also passed by the Democratic-led Assembly on a 50-to-25 vote.

After the vote on Friday, Senator Darrell Steinberg, a Democrat and the Senate’s president pro tem, said he expected Mr. Brown not to act until all the bills were before him.

“We will engage in more discussion with the governor about the remaining issues that have been vetted and discussed throughout this week,” Mr. Steinberg said.

Mr. Brown did not indicate on Friday whether he would sign or veto the budget bill. His spokesman, Gil Duran, said negotiations were continuing. “We’re still not there yet,” Mr. Duran said.

Republicans, who have been sidelined because Democrats can pass the budget on a majority vote, called the budget incomplete and urged Mr. Brown to veto the bill. To override a veto, Democrats would need Republican support to reach a two-thirds majority.

“This budget is a slow-motion train wreck, and you’re driving the bus,” said Senator Tom Berryhill, a Republican. He criticized Democrats for omitting pension and regulatory changes and a cap on state spending that Republicans say are all needed to rescue state government in the long run.

In passing the main budget bill Friday, lawmakers met the requirement for keeping their paychecks flowing under a voter-approved measure that blocks their pay if a budget is late.

Last year, the governor vetoed the budget passed by Democrats, calling it unbalanced. The state controller withheld 12 days of pay, but a judge has since found that the controller has no authority to block paychecks because it violated the separation of powers in the State Constitution.

In introducing the Democratic spending plan, the chairman of the Assembly Budget Committee, Bob Blumenfield, said lawmakers tried to soften the most severe cuts to social services and proposed “more compassionate alternatives to some of the governor’s proposals.”

The governor’s plan and the Democrats’ plan assume that voters will approve Mr. Brown’s tax initiative in November. The measure seeks to raise the state sales tax by a quarter of a cent and increase income taxes for people who make more than $250,000 a year, which is projected to raise $8.5 billion through mid-2013.

If voters reject the tax increases, schools and other public entities would be subject to severe automatic cuts, which include shortening the academic year by several weeks.

The governor and lawmakers propose bridging the remainder of the deficit by cutting the budget and shuffling funds, but Mr. Brown wants larger cuts for welfare, child care, in-home support and college aid.

Jim Nielsen, a Republican and the vice chairman of the Assembly Budget Committee, said voters would not approve the tax increases because they understood how poorly the budget was created.